Disorders & Procedures



A condition, in which objects at all distances appear distorted, caused by a misshaped cornea. Instead of being spherical, the cornea has more curvature in one meridian than the other. It is shaped similar to a rugby ball.


A clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or its envelope. Cataract formation is a normal aging process, but can also be caused by conditions such as diabetes, inflammation inside the eye and trauma.

When the lens becomes cloudy enough, it interferes with vision and depending on the size, thickness and type, a person may also notice a decrease in the far and/or near vision. Glares, ghostly images and halos are also symptoms of cataracts.


Deposits of various sizes, shapes, consistencies, refractive index and motility within the eye’s vitreous humour, which is normally transparent. The common type of floater, which is present in most people’s eyes, is due to degenerative changes of the vitreous humour. Floaters are visible because of the shadows they cast on the retina or the refraction of the light that passes through them, and can appear as spots, threads etc. which float slowly before the person’s eyes.


Some patients may get small ‘flashes’ of light at times, which may or may not be associated with the appearance of new floaters. Flashes are usually caused by the vitreous body tugging on the retina. Flashes may last for a few seconds or even several of minutes, and can occur on and off for weeks or months. They are usually seen at night or in poor lighting.

Diabetic Eye Disease

One of the leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Some people may not realize they have diabetes mellitus for several years until they begin to experience problems with their eyes or vision. Diabetic eye disease most commonly develops in people who have diabetes mellitus for many years and who have had little or poor control of their blood sugars over that period.

Diabetic Retinopathy

There are two types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2 – both types can potentially cause blindness. Unfortunately the damage to the eye may occur without symptoms and thus ALL patients with diabetes have to get their eyes checked regularly by an ophthalmologist.

In diabetic patients, tiny blood vessels in the retina may become diseased and damaged due to the effects of diabetes. Diabetes can cause the blood vessels to swell and leak blood, or fluid, around the retina. As they heal, scar tissue forms on the retina. The retina can be damaged so badly that it functions less effectively, and vision is impaired. This process is called diabetic retinopathy and is a slow process, over months or years.


An eye disease in which the optic nerve is damaged in a characteristic pattern. This can permanently damage vision in the affected eye and lead to blindness if left untreated. It is normally associated with increased fluid pressure in the eye.


It is a genetic degenerative disorder of the eye, in which the cornea gets progressively thinner and steeper, changing the shape of the eye and resulting in poor vision. Glasses & hard contact lenses can be used to improve vision. Corneal cross linking is the treatment of choice presently. If all fails, the last option would be a corneal transplant.

Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease associated with aging that gradually destroys sharp, central vision. This disease affects the macula, which is the part of the eye that allows you to see fine details.

Macular Hole

The macula is the most sensitive portion of the retina and is responsible for the high definition central vision required for tasks such as reading, watching television, using a computer and driving. A macula hole is a small hole in this area of the retina caused by degenerative changes in the vitreous, which is the jelly like substance, which fills the back portion of the eye. The symptoms of a macula hole are blurred central vision with or without some distortion. You may battle to read with this eye and will often have difficulty in judging distances and may find activities like climbing steps or pouring a drink difficult.


An overgrowth and scarring of the conjuctival membrane of the eye. Believed to be caused and aggravated by exposure to ultraviolet light in susceptible individuals. When it becomes troublesome, it may need to be removed surgically.

Retinal Detachment

A disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. This could lead to vision loss and blindness and is a medical emergency.

Flashes of light
Increase in number of floaters
Heaviness in the eye

Retinitis Pigmentosa

An inherited disease that affects both eyes and eventually leads to blindness by the age of 60. As teenagers or young adults, night blindness develops, followed by circular peripheral blind spot and then tunnel vision. Usually there is a good central vision but poor peripheral vision, making it difficult to walk or drive. By age 35-40, cataracts may develop, requiring surgery.


A misalignment of the eyes, also known as strabismus. The most common squint is a horizontal misalignment with the eyes deviating inwards. However, squints can also deviate outwards, vertical and downwards. Causes for squint include far sightedness, poorly functioning eye muscles and poor function of the nerves that allow eye movement. Within children, treatment include prescription glasses, however, adults usually require an operation to correct this. Done under general anesthetic, the muscles responsible for moving the eye are strengthened by repositioning them. Dissolvable stitches are used to place the muscles in new positions on the surface of the eyeball. The adjustment usually takes place about 4 to 5 hours after the operation.


Corneal Transplantation

A relatively complicated surgery, performed on people with serious eye problems and poor vision. Reasons for a corneal transplant include keratoconus, corneal dystrophies and corneal scarring.

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Laser refractive surgery can correct myopia (short-sightedness), hypermetropia (far-sightedness) and astigmatism (irregular cornea) through the use of excimer laser technology. It is one of the most commonly performed ocular surgical procedures worldwide.

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Cataract Surgery

The removal of a cataract is the most common surgical procedure. It has a high rate of success due to the modern methods used by ophthalmologists.

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Refractive Surgery

This surgery aims to correct errors of refraction in the eye, reducing or eliminating the need for corrective lenses. There are many types of refractive surgery with LASIK being the most popular. However, should LASIK not be suitable for you, there are other options that your Doctor can suggest, such as Phakic lens implants, PRK and Topography guided PRK.

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Glaucoma Surgery

Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease, but with adequate treatment, loss of vision can be avoided. First line of treatment is medical i.e. eye drops, and if that fails, then surgery is required.

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Corneal Cross-Linking

Corneal cross-linking stabilizes a disease called Keratoconus, which is an uncommon degenerative eye disorder in which the normally round, dome-like cornea (the clear front window of the eye) becomes thin and develops a cone-like bulge. The procedure is painless, using a topical anesthetic, strengthening the cornea by allowing it to re-form new cross-links between the collagen fibers. This new cross-links help strengthen the cornea which stops the thinning process and further loss of vision.

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